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Old L2 Sci links
2.2 Information evaluation
2.3 Geological process
2.5 Extreme events
2.6 Stars and planets
2.7 Physical systems
Bio 2.8 Microscope
Chem 2.2 Ion analysis
Level 3 link
Earth and Space Science 2.5 (91191): Demonstrate understanding of extreme Earth events
External, 4 credits
Achievement with Merit
Achievement with Excellence
Demonstrate understanding of extreme Earth events.
Demonstrate in-depth understanding of extreme Earth events.
Demonstrate comprehensive understanding of extreme Earth events.
1. Achievement criteria:
Demonstrate understanding involves
providing the characteristics of extreme Earth events and describing their causes.
Demonstrate in-depth understanding
involves explaining the causes of extreme Earth events in terms of processes that occur in the geosphere, hydrosphere, biosphere and/or atmosphere.
Demonstrate comprehensive understanding involves
explaining the causes of extreme Earth events in terms of the inter-connecting processes that occur in the geosphere, hydrosphere, biosphere and/or atmosphere.
In New Zealand
refers to geographical New Zealand and its continental shelf area.
Extreme Earth events
will be selected from:
NZQA resource page
New Scientist 2846, 12 January 2012: Earthquake history and measurement (article cannot be posted here for copyright reasons but you can get from NS website with an account, or from EPIC via your school account)
Plate tectonics in NZ
plate tectonics for extreme events.pdf
Old Level 3 NZ Geological processes -
most of this is relevant. I will eventually reformat this specifically to this course.
Video of Nov 22nd 2012 Te Maari Crater, Tongariro, eruption
If you watch frame by frame, you can see quite clearly what is happening in this eruption. Hot gas (mostly water vapour, prob 600+ degrees) has built up pressure under the Te Maari hydrothermal system. This has 'popped', like the cork on a champagne bottle, The sudden release of pressure has pulverised the surrounding andesitic rock. The expanding volcanic gas is turbulent and suck in cold air, which heats up rapidly creating more turbulence, heating up more air and so it goes on. Because it is so hot, it is lighter than air and rises. Cold air is continually expanded by heat from rock fragments (ash) and water vapour.
The turbulent ash/gas can also be heavier than air, in which case it behaves like a very low density liquid. This is how a pyroclastic flow forms.
Radio NZ Our Changing World on tsunami in NZ podcast
volcanism self test.docx
help on how to format text
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